When it comes to ATP, the rate of energy absorption and transfer is not well established. There are various reasons for this. The first point to note is that ATP is a ‘universal’ energy molecule, capable of being used both as an energy source as well as an energy storage form. That is, ATP can bind to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine in a similar manner to that of glucose. When ATP is first attached to this molecule, it retains its electrical charge; however, when ATP is subsequently used the molecules of ATP (or ATPase) break off the nucleotide bond allowing the nucleotide to be released with no more charge than it had. ATP then starts bonding to ATP phosphate in the same manner that glucose binds to ATP and phosphocreatine attaches to phosphocreatine. When this is done, ATP becomes available for use by the cell.
Another reason ATP may not be a good choice for energy storage is the fact that it can not be converted to the energy that the body burns. We know that ATP is used by the body to do the following: convert glucose (or fat) into energy (fat or glucose), support cellular respiration (aerobic respiration, the process by which the body uses energy from food and uses oxygen), and metabolise protein. The use of ATP in these two vital processes, however, comes at the price of storing energy. These last two points are where ATP’s power as a fuel cell comes into play.
We know that ATP can be stored in the cells of animal cells for several reasons. It has been shown in the literature that after a short period of cell division, a portion of the cell is transformed from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism (aerobic metabolism in a cell involves the oxidation of fats and sugars by the mitochondria in the mitochondria). The amount of ATP required for this transformation is dependent on the amount of ATP available from glucose and, more importantly, the amount of ATP in the cell (in the phosphocreatine molecule or ATP). Therefore, if ATP is used to produce energy in a cell, it will also be required when the cell requires energy; this is the energy stored in ATP. However, when the cell needs energy to be metabolised into ATP or glucose, the cell will use ATP and release phosphate via the energy-generating reactions in the respiratory chain. The breakdown of phosphocreatine (phosphocreatine is a molecule and an energy molecule)
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